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Symptoms of prostate adenoma. Different stages and causes

Prostate adenoma is a benign tumor that develops from the stroma or glandular epithelium of the prostate. The adenoma itself does not produce metastases, however, over time, it can degenerate into adenocarcinoma (prostatic cancer).

In 30-40% of men older than 50 years and 75-90%, over 65 years of age, changes occur in the form of proliferation of glandular tissue in the neck of the bladder.

What kind of disease is it, why does it occur in men after 40 years, what are the first symptoms and what is prescribed as a treatment, we will consider further.

What is prostate adenoma?

Prostate adenoma is a benign neoplasm of the paraurethral glands located around the urethra in its prostatic section. The main symptom of prostate adenoma is a violation of urination due to the gradual compression of the urethra by one or more growing nodules.

With adenoma, an increase in the organ occurs, which provokes compression of the bladder and urethra. This disrupts the flow of urine and leads to the accumulation of residual urine. Additionally, a man may develop a genital tract infection, urolithiasis, and cancer. The increase is painless, which is dangerous for a quick diagnosis of the disease.

Prostate: what is it?

The prostate, also known as the prostate, is an organ located just below the bladder. The main purpose of the prostate is the production of a specific secret, which is part of the semen. The secret of the prostate gland, determining the consistency of the ejaculate (in particular, contributing to its dilution), contains vitamins, enzymes, immunoglobulin, zinc ions, etc.

The prostate gland for men is the “second heart”, which is responsible for sexual function, psycho-emotional state and general health.

The main functions of the prostate gland include:

  • sperm liquefaction - due to this, sperm cells acquire active motility and generally become viable,
  • secretion - in its composition it has enzymes, proteins, fats and hormones, without which the reproductive system will not function normally,
  • ejection of the seed - the smooth muscles of the prostate gland are capable of contracting, which ensures the entry of the seed into the urethra, and this is how ejaculation occurs.

Causes of occurrence

Prostate adenoma develops and grows gradually. Although this disease is found mainly among older men, the initial symptoms can be detected as early as 30-40 years. It is interesting that at first the cell nodules are massively formed and only after a long time they begin to grow in size.

  1. The first group includes causes due to a person’s lifestyle, which increase the likelihood of overgrowing the prostate. For example, it can be sedentary work or active mental stress in the absence of physical activity. That is why the role of regular exercise is hard to overestimate.
  2. The second group includes objective reasons that are independent of a person’s lifestyle. It is proved that prostate adenoma occurs due to changes in the hormonal background of men. Given that these changes inevitably occur in old age, we can conclude that only some men have the happiness to avoid problems with the prostate gland.

There are a number of concomitant factors that can contribute to the development of adenoma. These include:

  • Excess weight (the accumulation of adipose tissue contributes to the production of female hormones),
  • Hereditary factor
  • Atherosclerosis,
  • Smoking and alcohol abuse
  • Inflammatory processes in the kidneys and urethra,
  • Lack of exercise and malnutrition,
  • High blood pressure.

Types of Prostate Adenoma

According to the structure and location, three types of adenomas are distinguished:

  1. A tumor through the urethra penetrates into the bladder, deforming the internal sphincter and disrupting its function.
  2. The tumor increases towards the rectum, urination is impaired slightly, but the loss of contractility of the prostatic part of the urethra does not allow the bladder to be completely empty.
  3. With a uniform compaction of the prostate under the pressure of the adenoma without an increase in it, neither urinary retention in the bladder nor urination disorders are observed. This is the most favorable type of adenoma.

Symptoms of prostate adenoma in men

There are two groups of symptoms of prostate adenoma: irritative and obstructive.

The first group of symptoms in prostate adenoma includes:

  • increased urination
  • persistent (imperative) urination,
  • nocturia
  • urinary incontinence.

The group of obstructive symptoms characteristic of prostate adenoma include:

  • difficulty urinating
  • delayed onset and increased urination time,
  • feeling of incomplete emptying,
  • urination with an intermittent sluggish stream,
  • the need for straining.

The first signs that you need to pay attention to:

  • The first signs of prostate adenoma are a sluggish stream of urine, an increased urge to urinate, which does not always end with an empty bladder.
  • As the tumor becomes serious, the patient no longer has a desire to find out what causes prostate adenoma, he is more concerned with how to get rid of the troubling symptoms. Urination becomes difficult, you need to strain to urinate, to connect the muscles of the press.

With the complication of prostate adenoma and its transition to a severe stage, all symptoms will intensify, which will negatively affect the patient's life. In aggravated cases, only surgery can help, which is why it is so important to pay attention to the symptoms. Even if they are repeated 1-2 times, a full examination is required.

Prostate adenoma in men goes through several stages, each of which is accompanied by increasing signs and complications.

Compensated Form

The most characteristic changes in urination of this stage are:

  • more frequent
  • less free
  • not as intense as before (the urine stream no longer has the appearance of a characteristic parabola, but falls almost vertically).

As the prostate grows further and the urethra is compressed, the following symptoms appear:

  • increased urination during the day,
  • decrease in urine output,
  • the increase in cases of an irresistible desire to urinate (the so-called imperative urges),
  • involvement of auxiliary muscles: the patient, for better emptying, occasionally strains the abdomen at the beginning or at the end of urination.

Subcompensated Stage

Subcompensated - an increase in the prostate reached levels when it began to strongly affect the function of the bladder to remove urine from the body. Violations occur:

  • bladder emptying occurs in portions,
  • the walls of the bubble increase in thickness,
  • there is a delay in part of the urine,
  • when the bladder overflows, involuntary urination may occur,
  • urine may be cloudy and contain blood impurities.

Stage 3 prostate adenoma - decompensated

There is a decrease in the contractility of the bladder to the minimum limits, an increase in residual urine can be about two liters. It is also important to sharply stretch the bladder, in which its contours are seen in the form of an oval or in a spherical shape, reaching the navel, and in some cases, rising much higher.

Meanwhile, at night, and after and during the daytime, urine is systematically or constantly excreted, this happens in an involuntary way, due to drops of an overflowing bladder.

Concomitant symptoms of adenoma:

  • weakness,
  • nausea and lack of appetite,
  • constipation
  • thirst and dry mouth.

Implications for a man

Complications of prostate adenoma:

  • Acute urinary retention. A complication appears at stages 2 or 3 of the disease due to compression of the urethra by a hypertrophied prostate gland.
  • Urinary tract inflammation. Stagnant processes in the bladder lead to the growth of bacteria. They provoke the development of cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis.
  • Urolithiasis disease. Incomplete emptying of the bladder leads to the appearance of microliths, stones, or mineral deposits in it. They can cause blockage of the bladder, urinary retention.
  • Hematuria The appearance of red blood cells in the urine, which is caused by varicose veins of the neck of the bladder.


It would not be an exaggeration to say that the successful diagnosis of prostate adenoma directly depends on the patient. At the very early stages, it is the survey that can give those indicators by which the specialist will be able to suspect the presence of the disease.

Diagnostics consists of:

  1. The doctor conducts a digital examination of the prostate.
  2. In order to assess the severity of symptoms of prostate adenoma, the patient is asked to fill out a urination diary.
  3. A study of the secretion of the prostate and smears from the urethra is performed to exclude infectious complications.
  4. An ultrasound of the prostate is performed, during which the volume of the prostate gland is determined, stones and areas with congestion are detected, the amount of residual urine, the condition of the kidneys and urinary tract are evaluated.

PSA analysis for prostate adenoma is an important indicator in determining the degree of disease and the appointment of treatment. Such a study is recommended for every man over 40 years of age annually, because it diagnoses any abnormalities in the prostate and helps to identify even cancer of the prostate adenoma.

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