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Prostate TRUS: indications, preparation and procedure

The most informative and affordable way to obtain information about processes occurring in the prostate is ultrasound. Using wave irradiation, doctors can understand if there are inflammatory processes in the body, whether there are abscesses, cysts or calculi. Consider how the ultrasound of the prostate is done, we will talk about the main methods, preparation for them, the results and their interpretation.

In what cases is an ultrasound of the prostate necessary

Various pathologies in the prostate gland do not have characteristic signs. Men complain about health problems that can occur with damage to the bladder, kidneys, and testicles. Therefore, an ultrasound of the prostate is necessary in the following cases:

  • complaints of pain in the perineum, penis, scrotum, lower abdomen and lower back,
  • problems with urination - sluggish stream, frequent urges, lack of process,
  • pain in the prostate during rectal examination,
  • disorders in reproductive functions - early ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, pain during sex,
  • discharge from the penis - purulent, with impurities of blood, fetid.

Ultrasound of the prostate in these cases is an effective tool for determining acute or chronic prostatitis, benign hyperplasia, and prostate cancer. If the results do not show any pathological changes in the tissues, the doctor can diagnose “chronic pelvic pain syndrome” (abacterial prostatitis).

Most often, the bladder is examined along with the prostate gland. Assessing the condition of its walls will help to better understand the cause of urination disorders.

Depending on the goals and contraindications, a man can get an ultrasound abdominally or transrectally. The second method is more informative, but forbidden for hemorrhoids, rectal fissures, or anus. Consider the features of each method.

Features of preparation and the course of diagnosis

Special preparation before this examination method is not required. However, doctors recommend in 1-2 days to exclude from the diet foods that cause flatulence in the intestine. Also, a few hours before the study, you need to drink about a liter of clean water - this is necessary to fill the bladder.

The examination procedure is the same as with ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, the difference is only in the location of the sensor. The man lies on the couch, the doctor puts a special gel on the skin of the lower abdomen, and then scans the prostate.

Abdominal ultrasound of the prostate has limited tissue imaging because of the inconvenient location of the organ. Also, there will be no exact results if the man is obese by the abdominal type.

Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS)

A more informative method compared to the previous one. The supply of an ultrasonic wave through the wall of the rectum allows you to get a clearer picture of the organ, accurately determine the location and area of ​​inflammatory processes and identify tumors of different sizes. However, in this case, the requirements for training are more stringent, there are contraindications.

Preparation for transrectal ultrasound

If a man follows the rules of preparation, it will be possible to get a more accurate picture of the changes taking place in the body. This means that the doctor will be able to choose the most correct tactics for treating the disease.

Brief reminder to the patient:

  • 1-2 days before the date of the study, exclude legumes, cabbage and other products that contribute to the formation of gases from the diet,
  • give up alcohol
  • in the evening and the next day, make a cleansing enema,
  • drink an liter of water an hour before TRUS
  • if the doctor gave any other recommendations, do not neglect them.

Do not forget to take a referral for examination. If you have problems with urinary incontinence - you are allowed to drink water upon arrival at the clinic, and not at home.

How do TRUZI

During a transrectal examination, the sensor is inserted into the anus, so the man should be calm, not worry, and follow the doctor’s instructions. The course of the event is approximately the following:

  1. The patient takes off his clothes and puts on a special bathrobe.
  2. Lies on the couch on its side, bending its knees and bending them to the stomach.
  3. The doctor puts on a condom on the sensor (to prevent infection), lubricates it with petroleum jelly.
  4. The sensor is carefully inserted to a depth of 7 cm.
  5. The Uzist makes translational, inclined and rotational movements with the device, depending on the design of the device and the type of scan.

The image of the prostate tissue is displayed on the monitor, if necessary, can be printed.

The diameter of the sensor does not exceed 2 cm, so a man usually does not feel pain. Depending on the condition of the anus and rectum, slight discomfort or a urge to defecate is possible, which you do not need to pay attention to. Unpleasant sensations pass 10-15 minutes after the manipulations.

Rectal ultrasound can detect even a slight increase in the size of the prostate, which is important for the early diagnosis of prostatitis and prostate adenoma. Also, the neck of the bladder is clearly visible to the doctor.

What ultrasound shows

Abdominal or rectal ultrasound can detect various abnormalities in the tissues of the prostate gland, however, it will not be possible to decipher the diagnostic results on your own - you need to have an idea of ​​the parameters in the norm and master the terminology.

Modern devices can identify the following problems:

  • prostate cyst
  • stones and sand in the iron (if there is calculous prostatitis),
  • stagnation of a secret
  • tissue sclerosis,
  • foci of the inflammatory process.

The examination also helps to determine whether the outflow of venous blood is impaired and whether prostatitis is complicated by vesiculitis.

It will be noticeable and an increase in the prostate in size. Normally, these indicators have the following meanings:

  • width - 2.7-4.7 cm
  • thickness - 1.6-2.3 cm
  • length - 2.4-4.1 cm.

The volume of the prostate gland of an adult and healthy male 40 years old is 25-26 cm 3, with age, this figure will increase. In younger men, the prostate volume is 18-24 cm 3.

Inflammation is indicated by a 10% increase in volume relative to normal, increased or decreased echogenicity.

Conclusion

Ultrasound of the prostate is highly informative, therefore it is part of the screening for men over 40 years of age, and is also indispensable in the complex of diagnostic measures aimed at diagnosing pathologies in the prostate gland. More accurate results can be obtained only with the help of MRI or CT examinations, but their cost is slightly higher.

What is TRUS?

Ultrasound examination of the prostate gland through the abdominal region is uninformative and does not allow to fully assess the degree of organ malfunction. Unlike conventional ultrasound, TRUS, or transrectal ultrasound, allows you to get a complete picture of changes in the organ.

The study is carried out through the anus. The doctor inserts the sensor into the rectum of the patient, and on the screen he sees the exact picture obtained by reflecting the ultrasonic wave from the walls of the organ.

TRUS allows you to identify:

  • prostatitis,
  • prostate adenoma
  • malignant neoplasms in the prostate,
  • organ fibrosis,
  • calculi in the gland.

TRUS-examination of the prostate is included in the list of diagnostic methods recommended to confirm prostatitis and prostate adenoma. The examination is shown to all men older than 40 years for the timely detection of prostate pathologies.

Transrectal ultrasound is more informative than transabdominal

Indications for TRUS

Along with rectal palpation of the prostate, a TRUS study is prescribed at the first visit to a urologist with complaints of pelvic pain and impaired urination.

Indications for the examination:

  • over 50 years old
  • pelvic pain
  • violation of urination
  • ejaculation pain
  • a feeling of heaviness in the rectum,
  • incomplete emptying of the bladder,
  • weakening erection.

TRACES of the prostate gland allows you to confirm or refute the inflammatory process by the nature of the reflection of ultrasonic waves from organ tissues. Also, transrectal ultrasound examination allows you to get a picture of not only the prostate, but also the organs surrounding it.

TRUS is prescribed when an elevated or high level of prostate-specific hormone is detected in the blood serum. This examination is prescribed to detect adenoma and prostate cancer.

Such a study is prescribed for suspected prostate disease, as well as during a routine examination

With prostatitis, TRUS allows you to clarify the type of inflammatory process by the nature of the changes in the contours of the prostate gland.

Stones and fibrosis sites create in the prostate gland areas of increased echogenicity, which can be detected during TRUS. Nevertheless, it is important to consider that the presence of large stones in the prostate is a contraindication to such an examination.

If surgical intervention is necessary, for example, with prostate adenoma, TRUS is prescribed to determine the degree of organ enlargement, which will make it possible to draw up a plan for the operation.

Also, the method is quite informative in the diagnosis of infertility, eliminating physiologically the causes of decreased fertility associated with abnormalities in the development of the prostate gland. TRUS is prescribed as an additional diagnostic method for vesiculitis and inflammation of the scrotum. A doctor may prescribe such an examination for an abscess of the prostate gland on the eve of surgery. In this case, TRUS shows the exact location of the abscess, allowing you to plan the operation.

The examination is carried out painlessly and does not last long. If it is necessary to carry out TRUS of the prostate, the price of which does not bite, possible contraindications should be taken into account.

Contraindications for the examination

Having found out why prostate TRUS is needed and what it is, you should familiarize yourself with the contraindications. Among them:

  • rectal surgery
  • exacerbation of hemorrhoids,
  • bowel obstruction,
  • anal fissures.

TRUS is not performed if a part of the rectum has been removed to the patient during cancer treatment.

With an exacerbation of hemorrhoids, the introduction of a sensor into the rectum can provoke a deterioration in well-being and the development of inflammation of the hemorrhoids. In this regard, TRUS should be delayed until the symptoms subside.

With bowel obstruction, it is not possible to make TRUS. The study is either transferred or replaced by the abdominal method, during which the sensor is installed on the area near the bladder.

Anal fissures are a direct contraindication of transrectal ultrasound. This is due to the fact that the sensor can damage the crack, which will lead to the development of inflammation of the rectal mucosa.

In all these cases, prostate massage is also prohibited to determine the structure and size of the organ. Moreover, transabdominal ultrasound or MRI can be used as a diagnostic examination method.

Diseases or injuries of the rectum are contraindications to TRI

How to prepare?

Preparation for TRUS prostate consists in a preliminary bowel cleansing. A cleansing enema is necessary for the normal introduction of the sensor and the absence of distortion during the examination.

TRUS is done on a full bladder. An hour before the scheduled examination, the patient should start drinking water in small sips. In total, it is recommended to drink about a liter of water, but not in one gulp, but little by little so that the bladder has time to fill up before the sensor is inserted.

Preparations for prostate testing include rejection of gas-inducing products on the eve of TRUS. Such products include legumes, cabbage, pastry, fizzy drinks and any fruits and vegetables. Before going to bed, it is recommended to limit yourself to a light dinner with dietary products. If the examination is scheduled for the morning, you should refuse breakfast, replacing it with clean water or weak tea.

At home, an enema of one and a half liters of ordinary water should be made. You can also use glycerin suppositories to facilitate bowel cleansing, as this will not affect the results of the examination.

The doctor who referred the patient for examination will additionally tell you more about how to prepare for prostate TRUS.

Survey

Men prone to stress and neurosis should consult with a doctor about the possibility of taking a sedative drug, which would allow them to distract from the experiences during the examination.

For convenient insertion of the sensor, the man should lie on his side, pulling his knees to his chest. The sensor itself is a small tube encased in a condom, which the doctor will open with the patient to comply with hygiene standards. The tube is inserted into the anus to a shallow depth of about 5-6 cm. In the absence of psychological discomfort, there will be no pain, since the sensor itself is thin.

The whole procedure takes about 20-30 minutes. At this time, the doctor monitors the picture displayed on the monitor, and at the same time makes notes, which are then given to the patient for presentation to the attending physician.

Before carrying out TRUS, care must be taken to ensure that the bladder is full

Procedure results

The deciphering of the results of the TRUS of the prostate is performed by the attending physician, however, the patient himself can decrypt these data.

On TRUS, the capsule of the prostate is clearly visible. The continuity of its contours indicates the normal functioning of the organ, but with a violation of the integrity of the capsule, you can diagnose cancer or adenoma. In most cases, it is a cancerous tumor that extends beyond the organ.

An important role in the diagnosis is played by the symmetry of the prostate. A change in its size on one side only may indicate inflammation or abscess.

Stones or sites of fibrosis are quite clearly manifested in TRUS as areas of increased echogenicity. Heterogeneity of prostate tissue indicates prostatitis. In this case, with bacterial prostatitis, the contours remain smooth, and with congestive inflammation, a change in the contours and a violation of the symmetry of the prostate are possible.

In most cases, TRUS of the prostate is a preliminary examination. With such an examination, it is impossible to accurately see chronic prostatitis, however, areas of increased or decreased echogenicity should alert the doctor and refer the patient for additional examinations.

TRUS allows you to determine the edema, adenoma and oncology of the prostate, but to confirm each of these diagnoses, you must pass an analysis of PSA. With a significant increase in this antigen in the blood, we can talk about cancer, while a moderate increase in PSA to 10 indicates an adenoma or prostatitis.

To confirm prostatitis and determine its nature, an analysis of the secretion of the prostate should be additionally taken. Based on changes in the composition of this fluid, the doctor will not only make an accurate diagnosis, but will also be able to immediately select the optimal treatment regimen.

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What is a study?

Ultrasound of the prostate refers to a fast, modern and high-precision diagnostic method that allows you to identify a number of diseases of the genitourinary sphere.

Thanks to a special sensor in contact with the surface of the body, ultrasound allows you to get an image of internal organs in real time. In the process of conducting it, the body is not irradiated, as during an X-ray, so the procedure is considered safer.

Using a sensor, a doctor can evaluate not only the condition of internal organs. Thanks to the Doppler effect, it is possible to determine the blood flow in the vessels of the prostate, to assess the condition of the seminal vesicles.

Indications for

The doctor may prescribe a procedure for the following symptoms:

  • burning during urination,
  • difficulties in emptying the bladder, accompanied by instillation of urine or its delay,

  • pain in the groin,
  • decreased potency
  • frequent urination,
  • infertility,
  • premature ejaculation,
  • suspected prostatitis and other diseases of the genital area.
  • Types of Diagnostics

    Today, in modern clinics, research is carried out in two ways:

    1. Transabdominal Ultrasound - through the anterior abdominal wall. In this case, the sensor is located on the surface of the inguinal region.
    2. Transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland. What is a prostate trauma? This is a research method that uses a special transrectal sensor that is inserted into the rectum.

    Which method to choose?

    Many patients are interested in the question - which study is better? The answer is obvious. Despite more complicated preparation and some discomfort, doctors advise transrectal ultrasound of the prostate, because the study allows you to get the most informative data on the physical condition of the patient.

    This is due to the anatomical features of the male body. The prostate gland is located in close proximity to the rectum, so it’s easier for a doctor to get a clear image on the monitor and easily evaluate the condition of internal organs.

    We dealt with the transabdominal method and with the TRI of the prostate, what kind of study it is and what difference between them. But how to prepare for it and how to conduct it? Read on.

    Prostate TRI

    To achieve the most accurate result and reduce discomfort during an ultrasound transrectal examination of the prostate gland, it is very important for the patient to follow the doctor’s recommendations for preparation for the study, and listen to the instructions during the procedure.

    How to prepare for prostate trauma? Let's get acquainted with this in more detail.

    Training

    How to prepare for prostate TRI:

      For 2-3 days, the patient must adhere to the correct diet. Exclude from the diet black bread, legumes (peas, beans), cabbage, carbonated drinks, fiber-rich foods, fresh kefir and yogurt.

    Food should be light, fresh, easily digestible. This will help to avoid increased gas formation, stool disorders (diarrhea, constipation).

  • In the evening (on the eve of the procedure) and in the morning before the examination, the patient will need to have cleansing enemas. You can use warm decoctions of chamomile for procedures. They calm the intestines, eliminate spasms.
  • As a rule, rectal ultrasound of the prostate is prescribed in the morning on an empty stomach. You can’t eat before the study. You can drink only mineral non-carbonated water. If the diagnosis is carried out in the evening, the patient can easily have breakfast in the morning, but refuse lunch. The last meal should be 6-8 hours before a visit to the doctor.
  • 1-2 hours before arrival at the clinic, you should drink 3-4 glasses (1-1.2 liters) of still mineral water. So, a specialist will be able to determine the amount of residual urine, see if necessary immediately, and other organs.
  • Before the study, you need to tell the doctor about all the medications you take, including ointments and suppositories. 2-3 days before the TRUZ, the doctor can cancel the use of rectal suppositories, nutritional supplements on lactulose (duphalac, lactusan), laxatives and some other drugs that can make diagnosis difficult.
  • It is important to warn the doctor about the presence of gastrointestinal pathologies and proctological diseases. With cracks in the anus in the acute phase of exacerbation, the diagnosis can be transferred or replaced with transobdominal ultrasound.
  • How do prostate TRIs? Consider below:

    Technique

    Despite the difficulty of carrying out it, TRUS takes no more time than transobdominal ultrasound.

    How to make prostate TRUS:

    1. Before the procedure, the patient completely exposes the lower body and is located on the couch with his back to the doctor.
    2. The doctor asks to bend the knees and pull them to the stomach, clasping hands.
    3. You need to try to lie down most comfortably and relax. This will reduce discomfort during the procedure.
    4. A rectal transducer is inserted into the patient’s rectum to a depth of 5-6 cm. Before insertion, a condom is put on the transducer and lubricated with gel. You should tell your doctor if the patient is allergic to latex.
    5. During the procedure, slight discomfort can be felt, no more. The size of the sensor is about 1.5-2 cm in diameter, and the gel allows you to freely move the device to the required depth to the area of ​​the prostate. If the patient has no problems with the rectum (hemorrhoids, fissures, fistulas), there is no acute inflammatory process in the prostate, pain is excluded.

    Norms and pathology indicators

    In the process of transrectal ultrasound of the prostate, the doctor notes many indicators that can tell about the condition of the prostate gland.

  • The appearance and contours of the prostate are evaluated. A healthy organ has a completely uniform structure, and the contours are smooth and symmetrical.
  • The dimensions of the prostate are read. The front-back size should normally be from 1.5 to 2.5 cm, longitudinal about 2.5-3.9 cm, transverse about 2.6-4.2 cm. It is important to understand that there is the concept of an individual norm , therefore, in some people, the indicators may vary slightly without indicating pathology.
  • Then, the volume of the prostate gland is calculated, normally not exceeding 25 cubic centimeters. The formula determines the mass and specific gravity of the gland tissue.
  • In addition, the specialist looks at the condition of the seminal vesicles, vascularization, echogenicity. Any changes (deviations from the norm) may indicate the presence of a developing pathology.
  • Modern sensors equipped with Doppler, also allow to assess the state of blood circulation in organs.
  • What can reveal?

    Using transrectal ultrasound, the doctor can recognize the following diseases:

    1. Prostate adenoma, accompanied by an increase in prostate size. Its contours are perfectly visible during the TRUS procedure.
    2. Prostate cancer The disease often proceeds in an asymptomatic form and is detected by chance in a timely diagnostic process.
    3. Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland) in acute and chronic form.
    4. Prostate cysts that are well visualized during an TRI.
    5. Hyperplasia, during which the gland increases in size.
    6. Prostate stones can also be visualized.

    Contraindications

    Transrectal ultrasound is not recommended for patients with the following conditions:

    1. Proctological diseases, especially in the acute stage (anal fissures, hemorrhoids, fistulas).
    2. Urinary incontinence and other problems of the genitourinary sphere that do not allow filling the bladder normally for diagnosis.
    3. Hypersensitivity, often explained by the psychological characteristics of the patient.

    How often is the procedure prescribed?

    Rectal ultrasound of the prostate gland refers to those types of diagnostics that can be performed both with suspicion of a specific pathology and for prophylactic purposes.

    The patient can undergo annual diagnostics in order to know about the state of his health, in time to recognize the development of any pathology. It is especially important to visit a doctor and observe preventive measures for men over 30-35 years old, because every year the risk of developing prostate adenoma and prostatitis is growing.

    You can find out about harmful and useful products for the male organ here.

    Methods of ultrasound diagnosis of the prostate gland. Features and rules of preparation

    Many are interested in how to do ultrasound of the prostate gland, since this procedure is highly informative and relates to modern and safe diagnostic methods. With its help, you can detect various diseases of the genitourinary system in the early stages of development. Examination covers several organs at once, including the bladder and prostate gland. Men often refuse this event because they do not know whether it is painful to do an ultrasound of the prostate.

    What is an ultrasound of the prostate and how is the procedure done?

    Ultrasound of the scrotum and prostate is a highly accurate diagnosis that allows you to determine the pathological process localized in the organs of the genitourinary system. In the diagnosis, ultrasound penetrates tissue structures, reflecting differently from affected and healthy surfaces. The image is transmitted to the display in real time, the information received is analyzed by a specialist, on the basis of which he makes an accurate diagnosis.

    Ultrasound of the bladder and prostate gland makes it possible to determine the presence of the following diseases:

    • reproductive organ dysfunction,
    • the presence of cancer education,
    • prostatitis ultrasound also shows
    • bladder injuries
    • problem urination
    • the occurrence of calculi,
    • benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    For various indications, ultrasound of the prostate gland is used, the norm of parameters is indicated in special reference books, the indicators directly depend on the age and characteristics of the patient's body. The expert analyzes the appearance of the prostate, dimensions, density, shape. With the help of a diagnostic measure, you can easily identify adenoma, cancer, prostatitis, proliferation of the gland, the presence of solid formations and bleeding.

    When appointed

    Not everyone knows how to do an ultrasound of the prostate, so they are afraid of the procedure and in every way postpone the date, which makes it possible for dangerous diseases to progress and go to advanced stages. An ultrasound examination is prescribed by a specialist in a medical institution, it can be a urologist, surgeon, andrologist or therapist. The doctor explains what is the need for intervention and how is the ultrasound of the prostate gland done.

    Immediately after the appointment, preparation for the ultrasound procedure of the prostate is performed. With the help of the examination, the attending physician can obtain the necessary information about the cause of the pathology, the degree of damage, and the type of illness. Based on the results, complex therapeutic measures are prescribed or additional diagnostics are carried out.

    Ultrasound of the prostate is prescribed in the following cases:

    • the presence of traces of blood in biological fluids, i.e. in semen or urine,
    • problems with urination, including frequent, painful, nightly emptying of the bladder, accompanied by a feeling of incomplete emptying,
    • pain and signs of discomfort in the perineum, scrotum, bladder or rectum, you should first determine how to prepare for ultrasound of the prostate in men,
    • traces of discharge from the urethra,
    • the occurrence of renal colic for unknown reasons,
    • the presence of an inflammatory process or trauma to the bladder, gland or seminal vesicles,
    • infertility,
    • rectal ultrasound of the prostate is performed to exacerbate male strength,
    • the need for diagnosis before or after surgery,
    • a preliminary diagnosis is made associated with cancer, in this case, if you do not do an ultrasound of the prostate, that is, there is a high probability of a fatal outcome.

    Screening diagnostics of representatives of the stronger sex over the age of 50 years also involves such an examination. Transcript ultrasound of the prostate shows all the problems that are present in the body associated with the organs of the excretory and reproductive systems.

    How do they do it?

    Regardless of the method of the procedure, preparation for ultrasound of the prostate gland is preliminarily carried out. This process includes several important recommendations, on which the accuracy of the examination will directly depend, therefore they need to be approached as responsibly as possible. There are several methods for conducting an ultrasound study, for example, ultrasound of the prostate gland TRUS.

    Over the past few years, only two methods have been practiced in medical institutions: transabdominal and transrectal. The first is included in the category of primary diagnostic measures, it is implemented outside, that is, through the surface of the abdominal cavity. Its disadvantages include significant blurred results.

    Transabdominal ultrasound of the prostate allows you to determine:

    • dimensional characteristic of the gland,
    • determine the dimensions of the bladder and compare them with normal indicators,
    • the presence of benign or malignant tumors.

    Ultrasound of the prostate is a transabdominally less informative method than TRUS, so it is used with little suspicion of a dangerous disease. As a rule, it is supplemented with additional diagnostic methods in order to get the most clear picture of the patient's condition. The transrectal method gives the most accurate results, since the sensor is located close to the wall of the prostate. These and other methods should be considered in more detail.

    What is transrectal ultrasound?

    This method is based on the action of ultrasound. As you know, this method of visualization refers to non-invasive procedures. Ultrasound waves are able to reflect on the tissues of the human body, as well as pass through them. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) does not differ in mechanism of action from other types of research. The only difference is that the sensor is inserted into the rectum, and not installed on the surface of the abdomen.

    Due to the fact that all tissues have different echo densities, the doctor manages to visualize the organs on the screen. In the presence of inflammatory changes or any seals (formations), the ultrasound picture changes. That is, the density of the organ or its site is different from the norm. Both hypo- and hyperechoogenicity indicate the presence of a pathological process, that is, a change in the structure of the tissue.

    TRUS is performed to visualize the prostate, rectum, douglas space, bladder. All these organs are displayed on the monitor and with other types of ultrasound (abdominal, in women - transvaginal). Nevertheless, when installing the sensor in the rectum, visualization is better, due to the reduced distance between the device and the tissues.

    Abdominal examination

    This is a superficial method of ultrasound of the prostate, as we do the procedure, we will consider further. Ultrasound waves are directed by a special sensor to the organ under investigation. The characteristic differences of this method include the complete absence of contraindications and pain, however, the quality of the results leaves much to be desired.

    Before performing an ultrasound of the prostate, it is necessary to prepare the body.In this study, the preparatory measures are quite gentle. Specialists recommend a couple of days before the diagnosis to exclude food from the diet that provokes increased gas formation in the intestine. Before the examination, you should drink 1 liter of clean water to fill the bladder.

    Ultrasound of the prostate in abdominal men resembles a banal examination of the abdominal cavity, the main difference is the location of the indicator of ultrasonic waves. The patient is lying on the couch, a special gel is applied to the lower abdomen, after which the specialist diagnoses the prostate gland.

    The prostate due to its location is not scanned accurately enough. And it doesn’t even help if the man knows everything about ultrasound of the prostate, preparation for it was held taking into account all the recommendations. Therefore, this method is suitable exclusively for a traditional examination without specifying an accurate diagnosis. It should be noted that excessive weight may be a contraindication, since the accuracy of the results will be minimal.

    Transrectal Diagnosis (TRUS)

    Prostate TRUS is considered a more informative diagnostic measure than the previous study option. This is due to the cardinal differences in the procedure. A sound wave is supplied directly through the surface of the rectum, so the results will be more accurate, they will determine the location of the organ, diagnose the inflammatory process, the presence of cancer lesions and other problems. Nevertheless, it is necessary to determine in advance the features of TRUS of the prostate gland, as we will consider the procedure below.

    Accuracy directly depends on the correct preparation. Strict adherence to preparatory measures will allow the specialist to obtain the most appropriate data, which will subsequently affect the overall course of treatment. That is why you should find out how to prepare for an ultrasound of the prostate and what rules need to be followed.

    Key recommendations include:

    • a couple of days before the date of the examination, it is necessary to abandon the use of cabbage, beans and other food, which can lead to increased flatulence,
    • it’s important not to drink alcohol,
    • before going to bed in the evening, you should cleanse the intestines with an enema, and then repeat the procedure immediately before the check,
    • preparation for TRUS prostate involves 1 to 2 hours before diagnosis to drink 1 liter of pure water.

    Depending on the condition of the patient and the results of previous studies, the doctor may make a number of additional recommendations and advise how to prepare for ultrasound of the prostate gland correctly. Advice is strictly forbidden to neglect. If there are problems with incontinence, then it is better to drink water in the clinic than at home.

    Now you should consider how the ultrasound of the prostate is transrectal. The indicator is inserted into the anus, which for many men causes catastrophic fear and unwillingness to conduct an examination. It is recommended to fully follow the recommendations of a medical professional, relax, stay calm and not worry.

    The event is divided into several stages and is carried out in the following sequence:

    1. The patient undresses and puts on a bathrobe.
    2. He occupies a lying position on the couch on his side, while legs need to be bent at the knees and moved closer to the stomach.
    3. The doctor puts on a condom on the sensor to prevent the occurrence of an infectious disease, then lubricates the indicator and the anus with petroleum jelly.
    4. The sensor is introduced by only 7 cm, so the patient does not feel much discomfort.
    5. Depending on the design of the device and the scanning method, the uzist produces inclined, translational, and also rotational movements of the device.

    The image is transmitted to the screen, if necessary, the image is printed. The diameter of the indicator is about 2 cm, so the patient does not feel pain. Sometimes there may be slight discomfort or a urge to defecate, which you do not need to pay attention to. After 10-15 minutes, these sensations disappear without a trace. So it was possible to determine what TRANSPARENDS of the prostate gland is and how it is performed.

    Diagnosis allows the specialist to determine even a small organ enlargement with high accuracy, which is very important for making a diagnosis in the early stages of the development of adenoma or prostatitis. Due to the penetration of the sensor into the rectum, the uzist can examine the neck of the bladder for the presence of an inflammatory process or dangerous formations.

    Prostate Ultrasound Results

    Deciphering the ultrasound of the prostate gland enables the specialist to accurately assess the condition of the patient. Based on the results of ultrasound diagnostics, a therapeutic plan is drawn up, which may consist of a whole range of therapeutic procedures. If you interpret the data incorrectly, then the treatment will not give the desired results and the disease can develop unhindered.

    The clinician is able to decipher the testimony according to characteristic parameters:

    • localization of the main organs of the genitourinary sphere,
    • borders and structure of the prostate gland,
    • degree of echogenicity
    • dimensions and shape of structural elements.

    Each of these characteristics fits into a special form, all data is indicated there, which shows an ultrasound of the prostate. According to this information, the attending physician makes an accurate diagnosis, the complaints of patients and diseases that the man previously suffered must be taken into account.

    Normal performance

    The norm of the size of the prostate in adult ultrasound depends on the age and weight of the subject. In a normal state, the prostate corresponds to the established size and shape, while there are no tumors, cysts or tumors.

    The norm of the size of the prostate gland by ultrasound corresponds to the following indicators:

    • 2.4 - 4.1 cm - upper front,
    • 2.7 - 4.3 cm - transverse,
    • 1.6 - 2.3 cm - anteroposterior.

    The volume of the prostate normal by ultrasound varies from 24 to 30 cm3. In the cross section, seminal vesicles should be within 8-10 mm. Be sure to examine the appearance and indicators of the bladder, taking into account also the shape and dimensions. The wall in the thickness should have a close value of 3-5 mm. Ultrasound normal prostate size is usually accompanied by the absence of calculi and other pathological lesions. After urination, there should be no urine in the bladder, the fluid should be qualitatively transported to the urine from the ureters.

    It should be noted that the accuracy of the survey is determined by various factors. The size of the prostate is normally distorted by ultrasound if there is an excessive amount of gas or feces in the intestine. The patient should take the correct pose and relax. The fat layer or damage in the abdomen leads to a significant error, which must be taken into account by a specialist. Be sure to pre-put an enema before an ultrasound of the prostate.

    What does the diagnosis show?

    First of all, by means of ultrasound, it is possible to determine the size of the prostate, the norm for ultrasound is compared with the obtained values. If serious deviations are observed, then the problem may be hidden in a dangerous pathological process. At the next stages, the physician should check other organs of the small pelvis, which will allow an assessment of the condition and diagnose the causes of the negative consequences. It is advisable to contact a qualified specialist so that he knows exactly how the ultrasound of the prostate gland passes and can correctly interpret the results of the study.

    The bladder is located directly behind the bone pubic joint, in the process of filling, the organ rises above this element of the genitourinary system, its upper part is adjacent to the abdominal cavity. Proper ultrasound of the prostate and bladder shows a bladder in the form of an oval structural formation with a delimited edge, and the far region is visible much better than the near one.

    Seminal vesicles are localized on the back side of the bladder on two sides, slightly higher than the prostate gland. Ultrasonic waves make it possible to identify them as interconnected formations in the form of bubbles. The prostate gland with ultrasound is seen as a glandular-muscular organ with a dense structure.

    It should be noted that this is an important element, especially for a young man, since the quality and functionality of seminal fluid depends on it. The direct state of the gland determines the reproductive capabilities of the representative of the stronger sex. On the screen, you can see that the gland is located above the bladder. Normally, the volume of the prostate gland by ultrasound does not exceed 30 cm3, the younger the man, the lower this indicator. The contours of the prostate are smooth and accurate.

    Connective tissue is responsible for the localization of organs, it acts as a binder. Each organ is located close to each other, that is, the elements are interconnected. That is why a violation of the efficiency of one organ entails the failure of another. To get an accurate assessment result, you should consider how to prepare for an ultrasound of the prostate.

    It is carried out in various medical institutions TRUTH of the prostate gland, reviews are of great importance when choosing a hospital, medical center, clinic dedicated to men's health or dealing with family planning. The cost of TRUS of the prostate depends on various factors, including the authority of the institution, the list of equipment and qualifications of medical workers. The cost of transabdominal and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate varies widely, but, as a rule, ranges from 550 to 4500 rubles.

    Experts recommend choosing a clinic with an average price, because sometimes the accuracy of the data obtained, and, accordingly, the effectiveness of further therapeutic measures, depends on this. In most cases, the diagnosis does not end there, the doctor additionally uses the palpation method, collects an anamnesis, and assigns laboratory tests of biological fluids.

    An ultrasound examination of the prostate gland, bladder, and testicles is done to determine the condition of the organs of the genitourinary system. As a rule, such a method is resorted to when the patient has complaints or other examination methods have yielded appropriate results. Before the event, you should adhere to strict training rules, because the quality of the results depends on this. The TRUSI method is most informative, it allows you to fix the pathological process in the early stages of development.

    Indications for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate

    Transrectal ultrasound of the prostate is a reliable method for the diagnosis of prostate diseases. It is the preferred research method, especially if cancer is suspected. Nevertheless, the appointment of TRUS does not mean that there is cancer. Therefore, do not panic and draw hasty conclusions in advance. It is worth knowing that with abdominal access, ultrasonic waves pass through many tissues (skin, fatty tissue, muscles). Only after that they get on a prostate gland. Therefore, the diagnosis of pathologies is difficult, especially if the patient is overweight. Transrectal ultrasound of the prostate allows several times to reduce the distance from the sensor to the organ under examination. After all, the prostate gland borders on the rectum. Indications for TRUS are the following conditions:

    1. Benign prostate masses. This pathology is quite common in older men. According to statistics, prostate adenoma occurs in almost every second representative of the stronger sex after 50 years.
    2. Prostate cancer. If cancer is suspected, TRUS is the main diagnostic method. This is due to the fact that under the control of ultrasound, a puncture of the organ is performed. Thus, the doctor evaluates the ultrasound picture and performs a targeted biopsy. That is, it extracts material (tissues) from pathological foci.
    3. Preparation for surgery on the prostate.
    4. Male infertility Often the inability to fertilize develops against the background of a chronic inflammatory process - prostatitis.

    A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate is performed if the patient complains of pain in the pubic and inguinal region, giving to the anus. Also, this study is performed in violation of urination and ejaculation, impotence.

    Indications for transrectal ultrasound in women

    Transrectal ultrasound in women is performed less frequently than in men. Most often, this diagnostic method is carried out with suspected cancer pathology. In addition, TRUS is performed if there is a possibility of inflammatory processes in the douglas space, abscesses, etc. As you know, the structure of the pelvis in women and men is slightly different. Given the fact that examination of the uterus and appendages is carried out more often, in most cases transvaginal ultrasound is recommended. However, in some cases, visualization of organs through the rectum provides more information about the disease.

    An indication for transrectal ultrasound in women is the study of the Douglas space. It is a peritoneum pocket located between the rectum and the uterus. Thus, TRUS allows to assess the state of pararectal fiber and the posterior fornix of reproductive organs. It is carried out under the following conditions:

    1. Suspicion of an abscess of Douglas space. Often this inflammatory process is a consequence of complications of appendicitis and peritonitis.
    2. Oncological pathologies of the uterus, rectum.
    3. Suspicion of metastases in pararectal fiber. It occurs with tumors of the stomach.
    4. Inflammatory processes in the rectum.
    5. Benign neoplasms on the back of the uterus.

    In both women and men, TRUS is used to evaluate the condition of the urogenital organs. However, in most cases they are examined using transabdominal access.

    Diagnosis of bladder diseases by TRUS

    In addition to the organs listed above, the bladder is located in the pelvic cavity. It is located in front of the rectum. In women, the uterus blocks access to it. Therefore, transrectal ultrasound of the bladder is more often performed in men. It is performed with suspected tumor, benign masses and inflammatory infiltrates. In women, TRUS of the bladder is performed if there is an adhesion process in the pelvis or severe obesity. Also, a similar method is used so as not to damage the hymen by inserting the sensor into the vagina.

    Transrectal ultrasound: preparation for the study

    Like any transrectal study, TRUS requires preparation. To achieve normal visualization of the pelvic organs, the rectum must first be cleaned. For this purpose, a laxative or an enema should be taken several hours before the procedure. If rectal diseases serve as an indication for research, it is necessary to exclude spicy foods, carbonated and alcoholic drinks from the diet. Before performing prostate transplantation, a preliminary diet is not required. If the object of the study is the bladder, it must be filled. For this purpose, the patient should drink 1-2 liters of water before the diagnostic procedure.

    Research Technique

    Transrectal ultrasound is performed in various positions. To see the prostate gland well, the patient is invited to lie on his left side. His legs should be bent at the knee joints and pressed to the stomach. Transrectal pelvic ultrasound in women is most often performed on a proctological chair (or gynecological). In the same way, a bladder examination is performed. In some cases, the patient is offered to take a knee-elbow position. More often - with suspected rectal pathology.

    Before you enter the ultrasound probe into the anal canal, it is lubricated with petroleum jelly or a special lubricant. After that, the device is introduced into the intestinal lumen to a depth of 6 cm. The anal canal, sphincters, and organ walls are examined. Next, the prostate and seminal vesicles are examined. In women, after examining the rectum, the posterior arch of the uterus and the douglas space are visualized, then the bladder. All results are recorded on the monitor screen. After that, the apparatus is carefully removed from the rectum.

    Benefits of Transrectal Ultrasound

    The benefits of TRUSI include:

    1. Lack of radiation exposure.
    2. Painlessness.
    3. Informational content.
    4. Improving visualization of the pelvic organs. High informativeness of ultrasound performed through the rectum is achieved due to the proximity of the prostate and the absence of a thick layer of fatty tissue, which is in the abdominal wall.

    Results of transrectal ultrasound

    Thanks to the TRUS method, it is possible to diagnose neoplasms of the pelvic organs, as well as metastases in pararectal fiber. In addition, using this research method, the size, thickness and location of the prostate and bladder are evaluated. Inflammatory processes and formations are displayed on the monitor as hypo- or hyperechoic tissue sites. The conclusion on the ultrasound picture is performed by a functional diagnostics doctor, urologist, gynecologist.

    Watch the video: Digital rectal exam demonstration from BMJ Learning (February 2020).

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