Features of the testosterone test in women
The hormone testosterone has a significant effect not only on the male body, but also can change many processes in the female. The quality of muscle mass, the state of bone tissue, the activity of processes occurring in the brain, libido, healthy sleep and overall well-being in general directly depend on the work of the hormone.
Of course, the amount of testosterone in the female body is much less than in the male, but any deviation from the norm - to a greater or lesser extent, has a negative effect on health. If there are any disturbing symptoms that indicate increased or decreased testosterone, specialists can write a direction for determining the level of the hormone in the blood. Let's find out when and why a woman is sent for such an analysis, what it can mean and how to properly prepare for blood donation.
How to determine that the hormone level has changed?
There are certain standards for testosterone levels in women, which may vary depending on various reasons. The amount of androgen in the blood decreases:
- in case of overwork,
- during pregnancy
- after physical exertion,
- as a result of stress and depression,
- after abundant gluttony,
- with vegetarians and vegans,
- ladies on a low-carb diet.
The amount of the hormone also decreases with age: this occurs as a result of changes in the tissues of the ovaries, in which connective tissue begins to prevail, and the number of follicles producing androgen decreases.
Circadian rhythms also take place. In winter, the hormone level is minimal, in spring it is the highest. During the day, the highest testosterone is observed in the morning, then slowly drops in the evening, and several additional hours of full sleep can double the amount of female testosterone.
However, in some cases, a change in testosterone level becomes a signal that not everything is safe in the body. What symptoms does a woman need to worry about and seek medical attention for a testosterone test?
If a woman has:
- hair begins to grow in unusual places (above the upper lip and on the cheeks - the so-called whiskers, around the nipples, on the chest between the mammary glands, and also on the inner surface of the thighs),
- the timbre of the voice is reduced,
- menstrual cycle is violated,
- there were problems with conception,
- the hair on the head began to fall out according to the male type, with the appearance of bald patches,
- there was an excessive fullness, not amenable to diets correction,
- the skin has become oily and acne,
- there is an increase in the clitoris.
It is possible that testosterone levels have risen above normal. The reason for this can be an incorrect lifestyle, hereditary factors, diseases of the ovaries and adrenal glands, oncological processes, excessive use of steroids or hormonal contraceptives.
If a woman has:
- dry skin
- brittle split ends
- muscle sagging
- impaired memory, concentration, logic of thinking,
- decreased libido
- brittle bones
- irritability and tearfulness,
- depression and insomnia
- increased sweating.
Therefore, the level of androgen may be reduced. A decrease in the hormone can affect severe illnesses:
- mammary cancer,
- diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Indications for verification
Also, indications for checking the level of androgen can be:
- uterine fibroids,
- polycystic ovary syndrome,
- tumors of the ovaries and adrenal glands,
- chronic and acute renal failure,
- cirrhosis of the liver.
Which is better to choose - general or free?
If the speed of material research is important to you, in commercial institutions due to lower workload the result can be obtained the next day.
In state medical laboratories, the study can take up to 6 days.
In laboratories, 2 types of analyzes are performed: for general and related testosterone.
In women, the predominant part of testosterone is associated with albumin and globulin (associated testosterone), and a small part circulates through the bloodstream in a free state (free - 1-4% of the total).
Free form is bioavailable androgenIt has an active effect on biological processes in the body.
Bound hormone is not active. Therefore, it is preferable to take an analysis for free hormone, it will be more informative than a test for general.
Testosterone testing involves taking venous blood.
How to prepare?
Typically, the direction for the study of testosterone is given by narrow specialists: a gynecologist, endocrinologist or reproductologist.
To get the correct results, follow the recommendations:
- The analysis is carried out until 11 am - at this time, the maximum level of androgen is observed.
How is it carried out?
- Blood is taken from a vein.
- For blood sampling, a disposable system is used.
- The place of the fence and the hands of the laboratory assistant are disinfected with strong modern skin antiseptics.
- The place above the fence is pinched with a special venous hemostatic tourniquet.
- The patient during the blood sampling does not feel discomfort, because the study requires a small amount of blood.
The norm of testosterone depends on age. Androgen levels can be calculated in nmol / l, pg / ml, pmol / l, ng / ml. Normal total testosterone:
- from 18 years to 55: up to 2.85 pg / ml,
- pregnant: 3-4-fold increase in the norm,
- in postmenopausal women: up to 1.56 pg / ml.
Normal bound testosterone counts:
- from 18 to 55: 0.29 - 1.67 nmol / l,
- older than 55: 0.1 - 1.42 nmol / L.
An elevated level of androgen in the blood signals existing health problems. Elevated androgen may indicate:
- hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex,
- malignant neoplasms,
- pathology of the ovary,
- uterine fibroids,
- endometriosis or pituitary dysfunction.
Low testosterone in women of childbearing age is usually not taken into account. But it can lead to various psycho-emotional disorders, often low testosterone affects sex life.
During menopause, it can provoke the development of osteoporosis, at an older age - Alzheimer's disease.
Too low a level can indicate ongoing renal failure.
In a woman’s body, everything is harmonious and balanced. Any changes most often indicate either an improper lifestyle or health problems.
A blood test for general or free testosterone is an accurate diagnostic method that allows the doctor to determine the source of the problem, and then carry out drug correction and prescribe effective treatment.
Testosterone in women
Hormonal balance is extremely important to ensure the normal functioning of the whole organism, for a sufficiently high standard of living. Today we will take a closer look at the analysis of testosterone in women, the rules for its delivery, we will outline the huge role of this hormone in the body of a woman.
Of great importance for a woman are not only hormones, which are usually called female (progesterone with estrogen), but also the so-called male androgens. And first of all, it is testosterone, which is produced in the adrenal cortex, and is also responsible for the timely maturation of the follicle in the ovaries.
It is known that in a woman’s body the level of testosterone is naturally lower than in men. In this case, any deviation from the norm becomes dangerous, both in the direction of increase, and in the direction of excessive decrease. It is extremely important to regularly take a testosterone test in women in order to diagnose hormonal imbalances in time and take appropriate measures.
Throughout the day, thousands of hormones are produced in the human body. All of them are responsible for the functioning of certain systems in the body. In this case, testosterone is directly attributed to sex hormones. It has a steroidal nature, belongs to the class of androgens.
In the male body, this biological substance is successfully produced in the hypothalamus, as well as in the testes. In women, synthesis is carried out in the adrenal glands, as well as in the ovaries. A minimal amount of the element is also produced in the liver.
It is known that for boys in the puberty, the development of the body, testosterone is very important. It is his influence that determines the formation of a figure according to the male type. At the same time, for a woman, testosterone becomes a kind of precursor of estrogen. Denote the important functions of this element in the female body:
- Stimulation of active bone marrow hematopoiesis,
- Maintaining muscle development,
- Ensuring a stable sexual desire, increasing libido,
- Ensuring good mineral metabolic processes in bone tissue,
- The formation of strong bones, a strong skeleton,
- Stimulating good nail and hair growth
- Restoring the proper functioning of the sebaceous glands,
- Ensuring beauty, elasticity and even skin tone.
We give an analysis: indications
In the female body, the level of androgens is not constant, it is always transformed. It is important to understand that such a process is quite normal, it does not indicate any difficulties with health. There are also characteristic stages of the development of the body, in which the level of testosterone production changes significantly. For example, this is the time of pregnancy.
When carrying a baby, it is extremely important to ensure the correct development of the skeleton, normal growth of the fetus. And here it is testosterone that becomes simply indispensable.
Here are a few key factors, important points. We find out exactly what could be the reason to go to take a testosterone test in a woman.
- Noticeable development of secondary male symptoms. The voice becomes more hoarse, the hair on the chest and also on the face begin to grow.
- Reproductive functions are impaired. There may be a suspicion of infertility, difficulties begin with conceiving a child.
- Failures occur in the menstrual cycle. Delays, menstrual discharge of a smearing nature are often characteristic.
- Visually, everything is also very noticeable. Imbalance in hormones immediately affects the appearance of a woman. Deteriorating condition of nails and skin, as well as hair.
- Significantly decreases the level of libido. Women note that they have virtually no sex drive.
- An alarming symptom can also be a profuse acne on the body, on the face.
- A wide range of gynecological diseases of various origins can be directly associated with an imbalance of testosterone.
- Weight gain. Usually, with hormonal imbalance, an unreasonable increase in body weight is observed, even good diets with increased physical activity do not bear their fruits.
We give the analysis correctly
Experts note an important point: in the female body, the maximum threshold for the concentration of this hormone is reached during the period when ovulation occurs. This is what becomes the condition for the successful conception of a child, as well as a significant increase in sexual activity.
The starting point here is the first critical day. It is him and I think the start of the next menstrual cycle. Here's how to calculate the optimal day for testing for testosterone in women.
- The duration of the menstrual cycle is more than 28 days. In this case, the analysis is prescribed on the 7th day.
- The cycle lasts 23-28 days. Already on the 5th day you need to donate blood.
- The duration of the cycle is 21-23 calendar days. From the beginning of menstruation, you need to count 3 days.
Getting ready for analysis
It is important to understand that competent preparation for the analysis has a significant impact on its objectivity. It is necessary to achieve the most accurate result. There are several rules that must be followed.
- Alcoholic beverages, even beer, should be completely abandoned in about a week. Exclude cocoa tea and coffee from your menu. You also need to do without sweet sparkling water.
- It is necessary to stop taking all kinds of medicines at least one day in advance. First of all, this applies to hormonal drugs.
- Reduce physical activity to a minimum. Try to get enough sleep, keep your body in good shape, but do not strain.
- It is recommended to refuse also intimate life. For a day you need to limit any
- sexual contacts.
- For a week, it is advisable to refuse to visit the sauna, solarium and bath.
- If a woman recently underwent an x-ray, an ultrasound-type examination, it is better for her to wait with the hormone test.
- It is also important to maintain a stable emotional state, limit situations in which stress is possible, and avoid nervous overstrain.
To conduct an appropriate study, the laboratory assistant must take blood from a vein. Everything is carried out in sterile conditions, using a disposable syringe, in the office. In addition, the doctor is extremely important all the useful information about any circumstances that could in some way affect the result of the analysis.
After about 12 hours, you already have to give up drinking, eating, and eliminate smoking and drinking alcohol. Hand over the analysis in the morning. It is recommended to come to the laboratory in about 40 minutes, so that the body goes into normal mode. You need to calm down, breathe evenly. Be sure to tell the doctor if the menu is unusual: it may be a rejection of certain products, vegetarianism, diet.
Norm for a woman
In girls, women, there is a variation in the level of sex hormones. It depends on numerous factors: on age, on the period of the menstrual cycle, as well as on nutrition, on sexual activity, even on the time of day. To objectively determine the exact level of testosterone, two types of tests are performed.
- Explore the so-called free testosterone. It is a hormone bound to blood proteins for transfer.
- The general level of the element also matters. Normally, the indicators are in the range of 0.26 - 1.30 ng / mol.
Why does a woman need to be tested for testosterone?
The doctor does not always prescribe tests for testosterone to men; there are a number of reasons why a woman can prescribe tests for this type of hormone. Despite the fact that testosterone is male, it is always present in the female body. It is he who contributes to the appearance in women of such qualities as courage and sexual attraction.
There are many reasons that can have a negative effect on testosterone. But more often the reason for its deviation from the norm is the exclusion of certain foods from the diet. For example, many vegetarians due to exclusion from the diet of protein foods have an increase in muscle mass and other symptoms, indicating increased testosterone in the body. Symptoms indicating a violation of the concentration of the hormone may faint in the form of:
- Decreased sexual desire,
- Menstrual cycle failure. In this situation, when testing blood for testosterone, the concentration level and other hormones are also detected,
- Deterioration of the condition of nails, hair,
- Sleepy, tearful state, chronic fatigue,
- Increased hair growth occurring in different parts of the body,
- Neoplasms in the uterus,
- Tumors in the ovaries
- Male forms.
It is worth knowing that disruptions in the production of male hormone in women can be triggered due to a hereditary predisposition.
Even with a small deviation from the norm, testosterone in the body of a woman can provoke serious changes. Therefore, it is advisable for every woman to take a testosterone test once in a certain period. Such monitoring of the hormone level will allow timely detection of any changes and timely conduct the required treatment.
It is known that for the female body is dangerous not only the excessive production of testosterone, but also its lack. It is extremely important to consult a doctor, exclusively in accordance with his recommendations, under his control, conduct therapy to successfully restore hormonal balance.
- Lifestyle comes to the fore. Here are some general guidelines.
- Of very great importance is the rejection of bad habits. Tobacco smoking and alcohol use negatively affect hormonal balance.
- Particular attention will need to be paid to nutrition. The diet should be well balanced. Especially badly the body needs zinc with magnesium, minerals and vitamins. All this is necessary to maintain the normal production of testosterone, to ensure hormonal balance.
- It is advisable not to adhere to strict diets, as the restriction of products, a monotonous menu is only harmful to health.
- Some sports are very useful: running and swimming, skiing, figure skating. Yoga is also recommended.
- Excessive power loads should be discarded.
If necessary, the doctor will prescribe drugs to restore normal testosterone production.
Features of preparation for the analysis
In order for the result to be correct, it is only necessary to pass an analysis for testosterone after the correct preparation for the procedure itself. Indeed, most often incorrect results are obtained not because the analyzes are not checked correctly, but because of ignoring the rules. Therefore, so that later you do not have to additionally take other tests, you should start thinking about passing it another 2 days before the appointed date.
So, when the day of the analysis will be known, it is necessary:
- 2 days to minimize any physical activity. If you have hobbies for sports, then it is necessary for this period to completely suspend all sports activities,
- For a day, give up medications, if this does not significantly affect the well-being of a person,
- Alcohol is eliminated from the diet for several days,
- On the day of the test, it is advisable to stop smoking 3 hours before the procedure,
- The day before the tests are taken, it is mandatory to completely exclude sexual contacts,
- Stop eating 12 times before the material is taken for analysis,
- On the appointed day of blood donation, you can drink water, it is forbidden to drink tea or coffee. Any of these drinks can change the result of the test.
General indications for the study
The amount of this hormone in the body of a woman can vary, and this is not always associated with negative phenomena.
Increased testosterone in women is observed in the third trimester of pregnancy, when it requires much more for fetal development than at earlier stages of formation, and during ovulation, when women have increased sexual activity. An endocrinologist, gynecologist, and in rare cases, a therapist, are sent for a blood test for testosterone in women.
Indications in order to take the test for hormone testosterone in women most often become:
- lack or decrease in sexual desire,
- an unhealthy and unbalanced diet, especially among vegetarians or vegans,
- deterioration in overall well-being,
- brittle hair and nails, excessive appearance of facial hair,
- irregularities and disruptions in the menstrual cycle, infertility,
- gynecological diseases of various etiologies,
- acne, which is often associated with hormonal disruptions,
- hormonal imbalance.
There are many factors when a specialist can direct a woman to take this test in order to prescribe the correct and timely treatment.
In this case, the doctor should pay attention not only to the symptoms that the woman turned to, but also to other signs of possible problems, because basically any hormonal disruptions immediately affect the appearance of the person and entail some physiological changes.
The degree of manifestation of symptoms of excess testosterone depends not only on its level in the blood, but also on the individual characteristics of the body: in some patients severe hirsutism and acne appear with mild hormonal fluctuations, in others, a pronounced imbalance occurs with almost no external signs.
When to rent?
Since the concentration of testosterone in the blood is closely related to the menstrual cycle, the date suitable for the analysis is determined from the onset of menstrual bleeding. So, when is it better to take a testosterone test for a woman?
If the cycle, like most women of reproductive age, is 28 days, then the analysis is given at 2-5 days, if it is longer, then at 5-7 days. With a shorter cycle of 21-24 days, the tests are taken for 2-3 days.
Testosterone analysis in women: normal
When using hormonal drugs that shift the cycle, diseases of the reproductive system, as well as during menopause, the day the test is scheduled is prescribed by a specialist.
How to pass a testosterone test to a woman?
Like any medical procedure, donating blood for testosterone requires some preparation.
Preparation is necessary for maximum accuracy of the research results:
- an analysis is given on an empty stomach. In at least 10 hours, the patient should not consume any food or liquid other than clean water. Even tea is excluded. Alcohol is strictly prohibited. It is recommended to take an analysis in the morning after sleep. In addition, it is in the morning that the highest levels of testosterone in the blood are observed.
- this analysis does not give up if less than a day has passed after such procedures as ultrasound, X-ray, rectal examination, fluorography. It is also better to stop taking any medications 24 hours before delivery. If treatment with hormonal drugs was prescribed, then you should go for analysis no earlier than 2 weeks after stopping their intake.
- Before taking blood for analysis, sexual contact should be excluded for about 2-3 days.
If the results deviate from the norm, the doctor most often sends the patient to retake the analysis, and only if in the second case the indicators are unsatisfactory, he prescribes therapy.
An analysis for two types of testosterone is given: an analysis for free testosterone in women and general.
For free, normal values are from 0.25 to 1.25 ng / ml, and for the general, from 1.125 to 3.08 ng / ml. With age, the content should decrease, and its performance becomes slightly less.
The cost of the procedure is not very high. However, in the question of how much a testosterone test for women costs, it is worth considering that the cost of consumables is usually added to the price.
Reasons for the deviation of indicators
Deviation of the results from the norm suggests that some organs in the body can not fully cope with their functions.If the analysis showed an excess or deficiency of the hormone in the blood, you must immediately go to a specialist who can determine what exactly caused this violation.
There may be several reasons for this, and which one had an impact on the patient’s condition can be found only after a full examination of the body.
The main reasons why the testosterone content may be higher or lower than normal:
- disorders of the adrenal glands. It is these organs that produce the hormone testosterone, so problems with the level of its content in the blood most often indicate pathologies of the adrenal glands,
- gynecological diseasesnamely, polycystic ovaries, benign and malignant neoplasms, endometriosis, inflammatory diseases of the genital organs, as well as sexually transmitted diseases. All of these diseases require immediate treatment, since their consequences can be serious, up to infertility and the threat of prolonging life,
- long-term use of hormonal drugs,
- heredity. Unfortunately, various hormonal disorders can be inherited, not only in a straight line, but also from more distant relatives,
- improper diet, overeating or vice versa - long-term diets. Obesity or exhaustion. Strongly lower the hormone content of alcoholic beverages.
Testosterone Testing Procedure
Male sex hormone is produced in all people, but the norm for women is much less. Testing for testosterone is designed to determine the amount of a substance in the body. The test will show the pathology of the reproductive system and a number of other organs.
A high level of androgen in men does not necessarily mean increased sexuality and masculinity. This is a signal about the presence of liver disease or the formation of a tumor of the prostate gland.
Diseases that a low hormone indicates:
- thyroid pathology,
- problems with the pituitary gland,
- cirrhosis of the liver.
Diseases characterized by increased testosterone in women:
- polycystic ovary syndrome,
- uterine fibroids,
- tumor formation on the ovaries.
A lack of hormone in the blood in a man causes problems with the cardiovascular system.
The doctor will warn that the patient must complete the preparation before taking the biomaterial. If a man ignores the recommendations, the result of the research will be distorted.
The rules that the patient observes before passing the testosterone test:
- Do not take hormone medications for two weeks. Do not use hormonal ointments.
- After an ultrasound examination, fluorography, x-ray, physiotherapy and rectal examination, wait at least a day before the biomaterial is delivered.
- During the day before blood collection, avoid physical activity, alcohol and fatty foods.
- Take the test on an empty stomach.
- Women donate blood on the 6-7th day of the cycle.
The hormone level is associated with circadian rhythms, therefore, it is correct to take testosterone within 2 hours after waking up, but no later than 11:00. Morning blood collection will give the correct result.
Blood donation is carried out in a laboratory setting. Biomaterial is taken from a vein with a disposable syringe. Patients do not experience discomfort during the procedure - a small amount of blood is enough for the study.
If necessary, the patient is given a general test for testosterone levels. If you deviate from the norm, you need to do SHBG - a more detailed analysis of the level of testosterone in the blood. Such a procedure is inexpensive, and you can always check the price with your doctor. Examination may be needed for such problems:
- excess weight,
- adrenal gland tumor
- male diseases - erectile dysfunction, chronic prostatitis, decreased libido,
- female diseases - uterine bleeding, persistent miscarriages, menstrual irregularities.
A gynecologist or urologist, an endocrinologist or a reproductologist can prescribe such an analysis.
To do a blood test for testosterone in men, you need to use venous blood.
- It is contraindicated to take a blood test within a day after an x-ray, ultrasound, fluorography, rectal or physiotherapeutic procedures. This is due to the fact that all these manipulations can change the level of the hormone.
- Before taking the test, you should inform your doctor about taking hormonal drugs or local oral contraceptives. You can donate blood only after 2 weeks of refusing these funds.
- The day before the procedure, doctors advise to abandon physical activity, alcohol and fatty foods.
- Blood should be taken on an empty stomach. Women undergo a diagnosis on the 7-8 day of the menstrual cycle.
General recommendations and advice can be obtained from a doctor who gives a referral for a blood test.
The principle of interpretation of any analysis is to compare patient data with the norm. Each laboratory uses its own unit of measurement of testosterone - nmol, ng / ml, etc.
It is worth saying that not always a deviation from the norm can be a strong problem. The thing is that the maximum concentration of the steroid is observed in the early morning, and decreases in the evening. The season can also affect the level of testosterone, for example, in the spring it is maximum, and in the winter season it drops.
In some cases, high testosterone levels do not indicate serious problems. The thing is that the level of steroid in women rises during pregnancy and taking contraceptives. In a patient of any gender, the level of a hormonal substance can be increased due to epilepsy or taking any medications.
A high level of a hormonal substance in a woman may indicate the presence of genetic abnormalities, problems of the adrenal cortex, ovarian tumor, uterine fibroids. An increased level of testosterone in the male half indicates diseases such as prostate cancer, adrenal cortical hyperplasia, and liver pathology.
To lower the concentration of the hormone in the blood in men, you need to see a doctor, since self-medication can only aggravate the situation. First of all, the patient should monitor his diet and limit the intake of fats. Vegetables and unsweetened fruits favorably affect the body, as they reduce the level of testosterone in the blood.
Normalize the hormonal system will help walks in the fresh air and a healthy lifestyle.
Low levels of testosterone in men are most often associated with age-related changes in the body, and this is considered the norm.
A very low level of the hormone can indicate the presence of cirrhosis, hormonal failure, diabetes mellitus, testicular dysfunction.
SHBG analysis must be prescribed to patients suffering from obesity or an excess of androgens. It is worth saying that deviations from the norm can occur due to malnutrition, bad habits or weakened immunity.
For women, a low level of the hormone in the blood is not a terrible problem. Such phenomena can be observed in women of mature age, in which menopause begins. But there are diseases that reduce hormone levels in women - kidney failure.
Raising low testosterone levels to a normal concentration at a young age is much easier than for older people. First of all, doctors recommend turning their attention to a lifestyle - proper nutrition, light physical activity and rejection of bad habits.
Deviation of testosterone in any direction may indicate the presence of health problems, but not always. A deficiency or excess of the hormone in the body of a woman or a man can greatly harm.Too much concentration of a biological substance leads to baldness and acne, infertility, heart pathologies and disorders of the reproductive system.
Lack of a hormone can negatively affect the cardiovascular system, lead to obesity, problems in the genital area and psycho-emotional disorders.
It should immediately be said that any medications must be taken strictly as prescribed by the doctor. Modern medicine offers many ways to raise low testosterone in the blood for men and women:
- testosterone patch
- intramuscular injections
- oral medication.
So you can see that the pharmacy sells a lot of tools and medicines to increase the level of the hormone in the blood. What kind of method for normalizing the hormonal system is decided by the doctor, coordinating the decision with the patient.
It is worth saying that such hormonal therapy is prohibited for patients suffering from cancers, since testosterone can provoke rapid tumor growth. With neoplasms, the level of testosterone on the contrary is lowered.
An analysis of the level of testosterone in the blood is necessary only as prescribed by the doctor, and not always a deviation from the norm can indicate the presence of health problems.
The root causes of changes in testosterone levels in men can be varied. A blood test for testosterone in men is prescribed based on existing chronic diseases:
- all types of diabetes
- impotence - lack of erection,
- obesity of all degrees,
- acne, dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis,
- metabolic disorders
- violation of the process of sperm maturation,
- taking drugs
- acquired or congenital diseases of the pituitary, adrenal glands and testicles,
- alcoholic beverages
- living or working in a radiation zone,
- testicular dysfunction,
- alopecia and impaired hair growth.
The analysis reveals most of the disorders associated with the endocrine system.
A blood test for testosterone in women is prescribed in the following situations:
- recurring uterine bleeding,
- Missing menstruation
- ovarian tumor
- spontaneous abortion,
- irregular periods
- Missing ovulation
- polycystic ovary,
- an increase in the menstrual cycle up to 35 days,
- body hair for the male type of abdomen, face,
- uterine fibroma,
- breast tumor
- congenital underdevelopment of the uterus and mammary glands.
If at least one of the listed symptoms is present, then this is an alarm to control blood for testosterone.
Before taking tests for testosterone, it is recommended that you first prepare. Preparation begins about a day before the expected blood donation. To obtain more accurate results, before passing the tests, it is advisable to adhere to the rules. Not allowed:
- drink alcohol-containing drinks, even in minimal doses,
- to perform heavy physical exertion, also exclude sports.
- eat fatty foods, fried, salted and pickled foods,
- smoking, a prerequisite is abstinence from smoking for at least 4 hours, including the use of hookah,
- take tonic drinks: coffee, tea, energy, etc.
Donating blood for testosterone is necessary only on an empty stomach. At the same time, the last meal should be completed no later than 12 hours before blood sampling.
The analysis is taken strictly 8-11 hours in the morning. It is during this time period that the concentration of testosterone in the blood is close to the highest value. On the day of the test, it is preferable to drink plain water without gas.
It is also forbidden to donate blood during the day after radiography, ultrasound diagnostics (ultrasound) and fluorography. Hormonal drugs are canceled approximately two weeks before the test.When to take testosterone for sure, your doctor will tell you.
Analysis for hormones always surrenders on certain days of the cycle. Women are interested in what day of the cycle to take testosterone in order to get the correct values for the study.
With a stable cycle in the absence of pregnancy, the analysis of testosterone in women is carried out on the 5-7th day.
Testosterone analysis in men and women: why, when and how to donate blood, the norms of total and free testosterone, the causes of deviations
Free Testosterone Index is a formula that calculates free testosterone. It is used in cases where it is not possible to detect free hormone with the help of analyzes. The free testosterone index is calculated as follows:
- determine the amount of total testosterone,
- determine the amount of globulin,
- calculate the ratio between the first and second indicator.
The result of the calculation will be a figure that determines free testosterone.
The norm in men of free testosterone by age is:
- age from 18 to 50 years, the indicator is 5.76 - 30.43 nmol / l,
- above 50 years, the indicator is 5.41 - 19.54 nmol / L.
Non-compliance with the norm indicates a problem in the body. Diseases that occur if testosterone free is lowered:
- prostate carcinoma,
- diabetes ,
- cardiovascular diseases.
Testosterone free decreases under the influence of the following factors:
- sedentary lifestyle,
- bad habits that reduce the quality of life,
- excess weight,
- genital injury
- stress and depression
- improper unbalanced nutrition,
According to established medical standards, free testosterone in women is in the range of 0.31 to 3.78 nmol / L.
Throughout life, the rate of free testosterone increases and reaches a maximum mark. Free testosterone in women normally matters:
- girls from 18 years old - 0.5 - 4.1 pg / ml,
- women in menopause - 0.1 - 1.7 pg / ml.
Raising one value does not necessarily entail raising another. For example: an analysis of the level of free hormone showed an exceeded value, and a general blood test for testosterone in women remains unchanged. This indicates liver problems.
An analysis of testosterone in women during pregnancy, especially in the second and third trimesters, yields values of free testosterone significantly higher than normal. This is due to the fact that in addition to the pregnant woman’s own organs producing testosterone, the fetal organs provide additional hormone production.
It is difficult for pregnant women to establish the exact range of free hormone, since the hormonal background of each pregnant woman is individual.
Testosterone (from "testicles", "sterol" and "ketones") is the main male sex hormone.
Thanks to him, young men grow up as valiant warriors, and boys as worthy men.
The production of the hormone also occurs in the female body, but not in such a huge amount.
Testosterone is common and free.
What is the difference? The difference in their activity, which is most manifested by free.
What is the free testosterone index?
When there is serious suspicion of a hormonal failure, doctors recommend taking a testosterone test in men.
After all, the function of the reproductive system and the work of the whole organism completely depend on this androgen hormone. The lack of hormone, as well as its excess, is reflected not only in erectile activity, but also on the nature of the person.
According to the test results, the doctor determines with further therapy and gives appropriate recommendations.
Before figuring out how to pass a testosterone test to a man, you need to find out what functions this steroid performs in the body.
Most representatives of the stronger sex, faced with this problem, postpone a trip to the laboratory in the long box, because they do not consider this examination to be vital. But in vain.
Testosterone is the main male hormone that is synthesized in the testes, adrenal glands and the pituitary gland, and is responsible for:
- regulation of the normal activity of the reproductive system,
- puberty. Thanks to testosterone, the boy turns into a young man,
- development of the secondary genital organs,
- building muscle and fat mass,
- musculoskeletal system development
- sperm maturation process and their motility and vitality,
- protective functions of the body.
If androgen is produced in insufficient quantities, then these functions are violated, which affects the person’s appearance and overall well-being, therefore, analysis of the level of testosterone in men is an important procedure that cannot be ignored.
The level of androgen in the male body depends on many factors and remains variable until the end of life. The total indicator is from 12 to 33 nmol / L. There are several fractions of androgen, each of which performs certain functions:
- testosterone bound to albumin, occupying about 40% of the total,
- free, accounting for 1-3% of the total indicator (3.5-12 nmol / l).
They are considered to be significant, due to the ability to influence male function. The remaining 57% of the total indicator of androgen is associated with globulin, and are inactive.
This begs the question, which test for testosterone should be given to men: general or free? The specialist, depending on the evidence, gives direction individually. But in most cases, it is enough to take an analysis for testosterone total (OA). The formula for calculating it is simple:
- OA = testosterone bound to globulin testosterone bound to albumin free testosterone.
If the patient takes testosterone preparations, then during the course of therapy for control he periodically submits a free testosterone test.
When passing the testosterone test for men, the patient’s age must be taken into account:
- the highest levels of androgen in the blood in adolescents,
- by 30 years, the level reaches average values,
- after 40 years, the inactive hormone decreases by 1-3% annually,
- after a 50-year milestone, the testosterone content in the body is approaching the lower limit of the norm,
- in mature men who have crossed a 60-year milestone, the level of androgens in the blood is one fourth of the lower limit of the norm. The body no longer seeks to create offspring, therefore, it does not need large amounts of testosterone - nature took care of this.
A blood test for testosterone in men: a breakdown by age
|Age of man, years||The norm of free testosterone, PG / ml|
When calculating the indicators, the general condition of the person is taken into account. Testosterone, like prolactin (responsible for lactation in nursing women) is a rather capricious hormone, the level of which is influenced by many additional factors:
- Mental health Constant stresses, nervousness, irritability contribute to the production of cortisol - the stress hormone. It suppresses testosterone and promotes its conversion to the female hormone estrogen.
- Lack of exercise. In the absence of physical activity, the level of steroids in the male body is significantly reduced. Therefore, doctors recommend their patients to exercise 3-4 times a week. For the synthesis of androgens, strength exercises are best suited (for example, lifting the barbell or bodybuilding).
- Nutrition. Products containing soy, semi-finished products, smoked meats, sweets, pastries are harmful to the male body. For their splitting, energy costs are not required, which means they quickly break down into fats. Fat is the worst enemy of testosterone.It converts it to estrogen, which means it lowers the amount of steroid in the body, causing abdominal obesity. As a result, female sex hormones in the male body become larger. The diet of men should include: meat, eggs, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, nuts, spices, honey.
- Bad habits. If much is known about the dangers of smoking, even more is said about the dangers of alcohol. The abuse of these "controversial products" is fraught with problems not only with hormones, but also with the health of other organs and systems. If a man cannot deny himself the pleasure of relaxing on a Friday night, then of all alcoholic drinks it is better to choose dry red wine. Only it increases testosterone, unlike beer and other types of alcohol. Beer contains a plant component that is close in action and composition to estrogen. Drinking beer regularly and in large quantities, everyone can notice the growth of the mammary glands and abdomen. All this is the result of the influence of the fermentation product on the male body.
- Chronic diseases and past infectious diseases in early childhood.
- The state of the immune system.
- Arterial hypertension and diseases of the cardiovascular system. To prevent sudden surges in blood pressure, many patients are forced to take antihypertensive drugs. They inhibit the synthesis of free testosterone in men.
- Athletes taking anabolic steroids to build muscle can provoke an abuser reaction - the body, regularly receiving doping, ultimately ceases to synthesize testosterone on its own.
- Diabetes mellitus and pathologies associated with malfunctioning of the thyroid gland directly affect the level of testosterone. In such cases, patients are prescribed hormone therapy.
The concentration of androgen in the blood depends on the time of day: in the morning its level is much higher than in the evening. In addition, there is a seasonal factor.
Testosterone loves sunlight, which means that by the end of summer it is much more in the body of a man than in February - March.
Given these nuances, it is recommended to take a blood test for testosterone in men in the morning. And when calculating the data, laboratory assistants take seasonality into account.
Find out how much a testosterone test for men costs, and how to take it when you have these warning signs:
- a marked decrease in attraction to the opposite sex,
- problems with ejaculation and erection,
- testicular reduction
- frequent urination
- female type obesity (fat deposits form on the hips, abdomen and chest),
- decreased physical stamina,
- reduction of vegetation on the face, chest, armpits, legs, arms,
- enlargement of the mammary glands,
- acne, acne in a teenager,
- diagnosis of osteoporosis,
- low hemoglobin in the blood,
- violation of the water-salt balance, which leads to a deterioration in the appearance of the skin,
- impaired memory, speed of reaction, concentration of attention,
- sudden mood swings,
- chronic fatigue,
- suspected infertility.
Of course, most symptoms indicate a host of other serious illnesses associated with vascular, cardiological, nervous and mental disorders.
But in order to exclude a hormonal imbalance, the doctor will necessarily direct the patient to donate blood to hormones.
If the decoding of the testosterone test in a man is normal, then he will look for the causes of malaise in another.
Boys are advised to take an analysis in case of delayed puberty and underdevelopment of secondary sexual characteristics. With a lack of male steroids, the type of development of a young man becomes female. With timely correction and normalization of hormonal balance, pathology can be eliminated.
How to prepare
How to pass a testosterone test to a man should tell the doctor who gives the direction. Additional information can be obtained from the consultants of the laboratory where the examination will be conducted. Preparation for testosterone analysis in men is:
- refusal of physical activity and sex the day before going to the laboratory. Physical stress temporarily increases androgen synthesis, which will affect the examination result. You can show moderate activity: walk, do light work, etc.,
- the exception of drinking a few days before the test,
- quit smoking in 8 hours,
- if a person is taking any medications, inform the laboratory assistant about this,
- all drugs on which the patient’s life does not need to be excluded during the analysis. A significant deviation of the level from the true indicators is affected by hormonal drugs and barbiturates. In addition, patients need to refuse to take cardiac glycosides, antipsychotics, diuretics. They greatly lower the level of androgen, which makes the test inappropriate.
Important! Prolonged starvation, strict diets, and an increase in body temperature reduce the amount of testosterone and distort test results.
Directly in the laboratory, the patient learns how to take a testosterone test in men. Blood is donated from the vein on an empty stomach (it is allowed to drink clean water before blood sampling).
In this case, it is advisable for a man to relax, not to worry, not to be nervous. During the procedure, he may be in a lying or sitting position: it all depends on the capabilities of the laboratory where the examination is carried out.
Often, results are obtained after 12-24 hours electronically or by hand.
If the results do not satisfy the patient (perhaps he did not know in advance how to pass the testosterone test to a man correctly), then if you wish, you can repeat the test in any other laboratory that provides such services.
Forms of Testosterone in the Body
The importance of this hormone for the male body cannot be underestimated. Its functions include vital tasks:
- the full formation of the testicles, prostate and penis,
- hair growth on the pubic part and in the armpits,
- tissue protein formation,
- positive effects on the brain
- providing a normal healthy erection,
- lowering cholesterol.
The hormone of male happiness has a great influence on sexual activity. The overestimated value of the content in the blood indicates a strong attraction to the fairer sex. Over time and, for certain reasons, libido may decrease.
A man needs to know how to maintain male dignity and maintain testosterone levels within the established norm. First you need to analyze the circumstances that affect the decrease in sexual desire:
- frequent voltage, suppressed state,
- hormonal imbalance,
- diseases of the genitourinary system,
- Mature age of a man after 50 years.
The first step is to get rid of stress and depression. It is the psychological state of a man that has a great influence on the decrease in libido.
The hormone belongs to the group of androgens and is in three states:
- Free. 4% of the total.
- Active 20-40%. The substance is associated with albumin. It is a protein that maintains blood pressure and serves as an important reserve of amino acids.
- Inactive 50–70%. Androgen associated with globulin. This protein transports substances throughout the body, forms important components of the blood coagulation system, and contains antibodies.
Decreased hormone levels
In the male body, the hormone is responsible for fertility and is actively used during puberty.A testosterone test is prescribed if there is a suspicion of endocrine disruption.
A change in its level can negatively affect the functioning of internal organs and systems.
During puberty, the amount of testosterone in the body increases dramatically. Scientists were able to establish that its maximum amount in the blood is contained in the morning. The indicator decreases markedly in the afternoon. That is why it is advisable to donate blood for testosterone until 11 a.m.
The amount of hormone is different for opposite sexes. A blood test for testosterone in women shows the features of the functioning of the reproductive system. For example, its amount increases significantly during ovulation and during gestation.
A decrease is observed before menopause or in case of disruption of the endocrine system.
How to pass an analysis for testosterone depends on the need to identify its free or protein-bound state. The hormone affects the development of the fetus inside the womb. Due to it, the first androgenic signs in a young man during puberty also appear.
It helps form secondary sexual characteristics. The structure of his body and hair is changing. The hormone has a direct effect on the manifestation of secondary sexual characteristics. In the future, sexual preferences will directly depend on him. During puberty, the amount of hormones in the blood is much higher than normal.
This affects the future habits of men in the genital area.
In adulthood, a man should not experience sharp fluctuations in the amount of testosterone in the blood. In the body, it performs many functions on which health and the ability to have children are directly dependent. Testosterone affects sperm quality, sex drive and potency. Hand over for testosterone analysis should be in case of abnormalities or suspected presence in the body.
For men, a decrease in testosterone levels by 60 years is characteristic. However, in some cases, such negative changes can be observed at the age of 45 years. About half of men have negative changes in the body during this period.
In the male body, testosterone is produced in the testes. A woman is supplied with this hormone by the ovaries. The adrenal cortex is also directly involved in the production process.
Testosterone is needed by the body during puberty. Under his influence, a person forms a number of secondary sexual characteristics. The hormone is involved in protein synthesis and is responsible for the growth of bones and muscles.
Scientists have been able to establish that testosterone also affects a person’s mood.
In the body of every healthy person, there is total and free testosterone. Only 2% of the total amount is allocated to the first version of the component. The remaining 44% are permanently associated with globulin. 54% react with albumin and other protein variants.
Most often, tests for testosterone in its general manifestation are prescribed. In case of deviations, an additional SHG will be required.
Donating blood for testosterone is recommended in the presence of the following manifestations:
- there were previously adrenal gland tumors,
- the patient has acne,
A blood test for testosterone in men is necessary in the case of:
- decreased sex drive,
- chronic prostatitis
- osteoporosis and other diseases.
Analysis for testosterone in women is prescribed for:
- menstrual irregularities,
- periodic occurrence of uterine bleeding,
- spontaneous abortion
- polycystic or ovarian tumors,
Testosterone tests are prescribed by a gynecologist, andrologist, endocrinologist or reproductologist to obtain a clinical picture.It is possible to get an accurate result if a person is previously prepared for blood sampling.
A person is allowed to take hormones if an ultrasound scan, fluorography or x-ray has not been performed within a day before. Some physiotherapy or rectal examination can distort the data. The attending physician should also be warned about taking hormonal drugs.
A gynecologist should know about a woman taking contraceptives in tablets, in the form of a gel or ointment. If there is a serious threat to the patient's life, then it is better to refuse to use these means of preventing an unwanted pregnancy.
After stopping the testosterone analysis in women is possible only after two weeks.
Preparation a day before the analysis should include the rejection of any physical activity. It is also important to refrain from drinking alcohol and smoking.
Fatty food plays a negative role, so it is completely excluded from the diet. Blood is donated only on an empty stomach until 11 a.m.
Scientists were able to establish that during this period testosterone reaches its maximum value in the body.
A blood test for testosterone in women is informative only on the 6-7th day of the cycle.
To obtain accurate results, you will need to donate blood from a vein to testosterone. The fence can only be made in a specialized laboratory. Manipulation is performed by a specialist in this matter. It is allowed to use a disposable syringe. As a rule, manipulation does not cause discomfort in the patient. An analysis will require a small amount of blood. The risk of deterioration of overall well-being against the background of the fence is minimized.
We have already figured out on what day of the cycle to take testosterone to women and how to do it for men. The interpretation of the results consists in comparing the obtained values with normal ones.
What is the difference between the indicators can only be determined by a doctor. Each laboratory uses a separate clinical slag.
To symbolize the results obtained, nmol / l, ng / ml, pg / ml are used.
For a convenient interpretation of the results, normal values are indicated immediately after the reference values. Thanks to this, the patient will be able to preliminarily independently evaluate the results.
However, far from always even a significant deviation indicates the development of a pathological process in the body. Each person is characterized by periodic fluctuations in the amount of hormones in the body.
For example, testosterone reaches its maximum mark early in the morning. In the evening it is at a minimum level.
Scientists also managed to identify seasonal fluctuations in the formation of a hormone in the human body. Its production increases significantly in spring, and decreases in winter. Jumps in the indicator are formed in the event of stress, depression or malnutrition. Testosterone levels rise amid excessive physical exertion. This change is short-term.
Blood for testosterone is taken if the patient complies with all the rules of preparation for this process.
The norm in men depends on age. Data are given in nmol / L:
- age under 18 years old - 0.2-37.67,
- from 18 to 50 - 5.76-30.43,
- from 50 years old - 5.41-19.54.
The norm in women of serum testosterone is also measured in nmol / l and directly depends on age:
- under 18 years old - 0-4.73,
- from 18 years old - 0.31–3.78,
- during pregnancy, the hormone level in a woman's body can increase at least three times.
- during menopause, the indicator is in the range from 0.42 to 4.51.
If a woman has deviations in free testosterone, then a certain medical correction will be required. At the first stage, you should review your diet. It should not only be balanced, but also consist of healthy foods.However, if this treatment option does not give the desired result, then it will be necessary to switch to conservative methods.
To lower high testosterone, you should adhere to the following diet:
- the menu should have enough protein foods. Low-fat meats and fish have a positive effect.
- dairy products are included in the diet. Allowed to drink fatty milk and cream,
- some experts recommend sticking to a vegetarian menu,
- food can be eaten in small portions. During the day should be at least five receptions.
Self-adjustment of the hormonal system is considered not permissible. Otherwise, the risk of serious consequences for the body increases. Any deviation of testosterone from the norm is dangerous. Only a professional can work to stabilize the situation.
If free testosterone is elevated, then this does not always indicate the presence of serious diseases in the body. For women, this situation is characteristic during the period of taking contraceptives in the form of tablets.
Also, the level of the hormone rises significantly with the bearing of the fetus. Doctors fix its significant increase during treatment for epilepsy or hyperthyroidism.
However, a change in testosterone also indicates significant health problems.
Free testosterone in women rises in the presence of genetic diseases. The doctor may suspect a pathology in the work of the adrenal cortex. The situation is typical for the patient during the period of tumor development, malfunction of the ovaries, uterine fibroids.
Testosterone levels increase significantly with endometriosis and impaired pituitary gland functioning.
Testing for testosterone is recommended for men with suspected liver, prostate or adrenal cortex. The hormone increases with cancer or hyperplasia given to internal organs. The situation is dangerous, because it can lead to a lack of susceptibility of androgens and the development of pituitary tumors. Testosterone increases significantly in the body of a man during the period of taking steroids.
Analysis for testosterone in men can show low rates, which are formed against a background of age-related changes. They may well be within normal limits. However, there are cases when the decrease is significant and cannot be associated with the age of the patient.
This clinical picture is characteristic during the development of liver cirrhosis, hormonal failure and diabetes mellitus. The free testosterone index decreases in women in case of a malfunction of the ovaries. For a man, this situation is a consequence of testicular dysfunction, pathologies in the pituitary gland or hypothalamus.
|Age||Lower limit (nmol / l)||Upper limit (nmol / l)|
|Up to 12 months||0||2,31|
|Up to 6 years||0||1,22|
|Under 11 years old||0,49||1,82|
|Up to 15 years||0,84||4,46|
|Under 18 years old||1,36||4,73|
- consumption of animal fats,
- Vitamin D - the more time a person spends in the sun, the higher the level of androgen,
- an hour of extra sleep increases the hormone content by 10-15%,
- sports - affects the number of muscles involved and the duration of the workout.
- frequent stresses, feelings and other psycho-emotional stress,
- passive lifestyle, i.e. lack of physical activity
- bad habits,
- decreased immunity against a background of various diseases,
- chronic pathologies
- disruption of the pituitary gland,
- thyroid disease
- taking certain medications.
When to get tested
A citizen of the Russian Federation can test for testosterone in any private or public laboratory: research methods and prices differ. The cost of the test depends on the level of the clinic, the technical capabilities of the laboratory.
When contacting a government agency, you will need a referral for a blood test for testosterone from a doctor.Private clinics provide paid services and take biomaterial from everyone who wants to be examined.
Testosterone tests in a woman may be required if there are such factors:
- poor condition of nails, skin and hair,
- menstrual irregularities,
- suspected infertility
- gynecological diseases
- the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics in the male type,
- acne on the body, etc.
An analysis is made for testosterone in men in such cases:
- the development of secondary sexual characteristics of the female type (lack of a beard, an increase in the volume of the mammary glands, fat deposits in the buttocks, etc.),
- testicular size reduction
- early puberty or its delay,
- frequent mood swings
- decreased mental ability,
- lack of sex drive,
- premature ejaculation or erectile dysfunction,
- premature wrinkles
- suspected tumor in the testicles, etc.
Checking their testosterone levels for men after 35 is recommended annually (for preventive purposes). Such control will allow the timely adoption of measures that will make it possible to maintain sexual activity for as long as possible.
What is testosterone?
The body of a man and a woman produces thousands of different hormones per day, responsible for the work of various body systems. Testosterone belongs to the sex hormones from the class of androgens and has a steroid nature. In men, the testes and hypothalamus respond to the synthesis of this biological substance. In women, testosterone is produced by the ovaries and adrenal glands, a small part of the hormone is produced by the liver.
What is the hormone testosterone in women responsible for?
In adolescent boys, the hormone is responsible for puberty, the formation of secondary sexual characteristics - broad shoulders, narrow hips. In the female body, testosterone is a precursor to estrogen. It provides the growth and maturation of the egg, is responsible for the development of the mammary glands, the formation of a figure of a female type. In addition, testosterone has a number of secondary functions, which include:
- normalization of the sebaceous glands, maintaining skin elasticity,
- ensuring smooth growth of hair and nails,
- formation of a strong bone skeleton - bone growth and development, ensuring proper mineral metabolism,
- maintaining a sexual desire for the opposite sex,
- muscle development
- stimulation of bone marrow hematopoiesis,
- maintaining a stable mental state.
Indications for analysis
The level of androgens in a woman’s body is constantly changing and this does not always indicate the presence of health problems. For example, during pregnancy, the number of major male hormones also increases. This is necessary to ensure normal growth and development of the skeletal bone in the fetus. The reason for a visit to the doctor to prescribe a blood test for testosterone in women can be the following conditions or diagnoses:
- deterioration of hair, skin, nails,
- menstrual irregularities,
- suspected infertility
- the development of secondary male sexual characteristics - male-type hair growth (growth of a beard or mustache, chest hair), the appearance of a hoarse voice,
- decreased sex drive,
- hormonal imbalance,
- gynecological diseases of different origin,
- pregnancy planning
- the appearance of acne on the face and body.
When to take an analysis
Testosterone in girls reaches maximum concentration at the time of ovulation. This is necessary to increase sexual activity and a successful conception. To get the most reliable results, you must correctly determine the day of the menstrual cycle, in which to take the analysis. The first day of the onset of menstruation is taken as a reference point - this is considered the beginning of a new menstrual cycle. Analysis for testosterone in women is prescribed:
- with a cycle duration of 21 to 23 calendar days on 2-3 days from the beginning of menstruation,
- with a 28-day cycle - for 5 days,
- if the menstrual cycle lasts more than 28 days, the analysis is prescribed for 7 days.
How to take testosterone to a woman
For the study, the laboratory assistant takes blood from a vein. Obtaining biomaterial is carried out in sterile conditions - a doctor’s office or analysis room - with a disposable syringe. In order to objectively assess the condition of the patient and make the correct diagnosis, the doctor must know about all the circumstances that may in some way affect the results of the analysis.
A woman is obliged to inform the laboratory assistant or doctor if she adheres to an unconventional diet (she is on a diet, observes vegetarianism or a raw food diet). It is recommended to come to the laboratory in advance (20-30 minutes) in order to have time to calm down and bring breathing to normal. Blood is donated from a vein only in the morning and on an empty stomach - 12 hours before the donation it is necessary to completely give up food, alcohol and smoking.
If the patient does not have the opportunity to come to the laboratory in the morning, blood should be taken after 6 hours of fasting, excluding fats from the last meal. Hormone levels can be affected by the time of year. It was found that the amount of testosterone in the blood rises with the onset of autumn. As a rule, if a testosterone test for women is performed this season, the laboratory assistant takes this fact into account and makes a note in the referral sheet. The study period is 1-2 days, after which the doctor compares the results with the norm.
Norm in women
The level of sex hormones in girls and women can vary depending on the time of day, the day of the menstrual cycle and age. To determine the level of testosterone, two types of tests are performed:
- Analysis of the total testosterone level in a woman. The test results show how much of the hormone is in the body at this stage of life. Values from 0.26 to 1.30 ng / mol are considered normal.
- The study of free testosterone. Free is the type of hormone that does not bind to blood proteins for transportation.
Analysis of the total level of hormones is considered auxiliary. It helps to clarify the diagnosis. Particular attention is usually paid to active (free) testosterone. Its reference (normal) indicators for different women of different ages are as follows:
The minimum values, nmol / l
The maximum values, nmol / l
follicular phase (1-7 days of the menstrual cycle)
Menopause (over 60 years)
The decoding of the test results is done by the doctor. It is believed that testosterone in women is lowered if the test showed data below average values - less than 0.31 nmol / l (provided that the woman is in reproductive age). A change in the hormonal background in either direction is a clear sign of health problems. So, fluctuations of androgens can lead to cardiovascular diseases, provoke the development of obesity or failures in the endocrine system.
Lack of sex hormone can be suspected with sudden changes in a woman's behavior. She becomes lethargic, lethargic, often a bad mood develops into hysteria or depression. Since androgens are responsible for maintaining libido, women with reduced testosterone have a lack of sexual desire and insufficient production of vaginal lubrication. In addition to the above deviations, the following symptoms may indicate violations:
- feeling of constant fatigue
- excessive sweating
- sleep disturbance (insomnia),
- tachycardia (painful heart palpitations),
- weight gain
- changing the tone of voice
- painful discomfort during sexual intercourse (a phenomenon associated with insufficient release of lubricant),
- brittle nails
- brittle bones
- deterioration in cognitive abilities (decreased concentration of attention, memory, spatial orientation).
Testosterone is higher than normal in women
The concentration of steroid hormones for natural reasons increases in the morning and decreases markedly in the evening. For these reasons, it is recommended to come for an analysis in the morning. It is believed that there is an excess of testosterone in the body if the woman complied with all the rules for passing the analysis, and its results were above average values - more than 3, 75 nmol / l (provided that the woman is in reproductive age).
How does it manifest
A clear sign of increased testosterone is the appearance of masculine features - broad shoulders, a narrow pelvis, hair growth on the face and chest, hoarseness of the voice. Such external changes begin to appear from adolescence, progressing as the girl grows older. In addition to the development of secondary sexual characteristics, hormonal imbalances are often indicated by such symptoms:
- increased sexual activity,
- hair loss,
- dry skin
- excessive irritability and aggressiveness,
- menstrual irregularities, up to the complete absence of menstruation,
- the appearance of blackheads, comedones, oily skin,
- dramatic weight gain, difficulty losing weight,
- atrophy of the mammary glands,
- difficulties with conception, infertility.
The treatment plan is chosen by the doctor, depending on the results of the analysis, the condition and complaints of the patient. It is imperative to abandon drinking alcohol, smoking, normalize sleep patterns. Lack of testosterone in the female body is the same dangerous condition as its excessive amount. The reproductive system suffers from a deficiency, a woman's sexual desire decreases, she becomes unable to conceive and bear a child.
An important condition for increasing androgen is the normalization of nutrition. You should abandon various diets, increase the amount of foods rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals, especially zinc and magnesium, in the diet. Favorably affect the level of sex hormones:
- nuts and seeds
- poultry meat
- oily fish - salmon, tuna,
- all varieties of cabbage,
- dried fruits - figs, dates, dried apricots,
- berries - watermelon, blackcurrant, plum, pomegranate, raspberry,
- vegetable oils,
- spices - garlic, onions, cardamom, red pepper, turmeric.
Be sure to do sports. This will help not only improve the figure, make it slimmer and strengthen the muscle corset, but also normalizes the natural production of testosterones. Particular preference should be given to cardio training - running, exercising on simulators, riding a bicycle. Eliminate all sources of stress to the maximum. Sleep 8-10 hours a day. With serious indicators of decline, the doctor selects hormone replacement therapy.
In the case of an increase in the concentration of androgens in the blood, it is also necessary to adhere to a certain diet, including foods rich in vitamins and minerals in the diet. It is better to refuse power loads, replacing hard cardio training with relaxing sports - fitness, yoga, swimming. Of the medical treatment, doctors more often prefer those drugs that contain an analog of the female hormone estrogen, diuretics or hypoglycemic agents. These medicines include:
According to the results of the analysis, in order to normalize the endocrine system, the pituitary gland and the alignment of the hormonal background, a woman may be advised to start taking hormonal oral contraceptives. The choice of such drugs is a gynecologist. The following medicines are especially popular with doctors and women:
You can donate blood for research in state medical institutions, having a referral from a doctor. In addition, many private clinics are involved in such tests. The cost of the service varies depending on the skill level of the laboratory and the region of your residence. Sample prices of tests for testosterone levels in women in Moscow: